There are majorly three types or classes of Surge Protection Devices (SPDs) :
|Description||Definition as per IEC 61643||Definition as per EN61643|
|SPDs which withstand the partial lightning current with a typical waveform 10/350 μs require a corresponding impulse test current Iimp||SPD Class 1||SPD Type 1|
|SPDs which withstand induced surge currents with a typical waveform 8/20 μs require a corresponding impulse test current In||SPD Class 2||SPD Type 2|
|SPDs that withstand induced surge currents with a typical waveform 8/20 μs and require a corresponding impulse test current Isc||SPD Class 3||SPD Type 3|
Surge Protection Devices or Surge Arrestors are available in all leading brands like ABB, Schneider, Hager etc. Please contact us (contactus@kmindustrialcorp,com) or call us at +91-9971138071 for your SPD requirements.Send Enquiry
Reliable object detection by an ultrasonic sensor is in large part determined by the correct configuration of the sound beam. The recognition behavior of the sound beam is also referred to as theresponse curve. This curve shows the distance at which a particular object can be reliably detected.
The response curve depends on the reflective properties of the object. Objects with a large surface area and optimum orientation are more easily recognized than small, round objects, or objects with poor reflective properties. Pepperl+Fuchs knows about the importance of this fact, and adds sound beam diagrams for various objects, e.g. astandard 100 x 100 mm plate or 25 mm rod to its ultrasonic sensors’ datasheets. The beam width can be adjusted on many models, focusing the ultrasonic sensor precisely on the target object.
Pepperl+Fuchs’ ultrasonic sensors determine the distance to an object using the echo transit time method. The measured distancecan be evaluated and displayed in different ways. The distance to the object is converted into an analog value and displayed at the analog output (for example, 0-10 V, 4-20 mA) of the ultrasonic sensor. Alternatively, the object distance can be directly transmitted to a controller as a digital value via a special interface like IO-Link.
For ultrasonic sensors with switching outputs, the output state changes when an object is detected within the set switching range. A distinction is also made between NO and NC functions, depending on the response to the object.
For sensors with switching outputs, the following different operating modes can be set using an appropriate assembly and parameterization.
With ultrasonic sensors, measurement accuracy usually refers to theabsolute accuracy of the measured value at the analog output. Based on the echo transit time, the measurement accuracy of an ultrasonic sensor depends on several physical parameters. Theseparameters relate to the air as well as to internal tolerances.
Ultrasonic sensors can be found in many types of industrial automation applications. Whether the fill level of a silo is approaching a critical level, or an aerial work platform on a construction site needs to be safely moved, ultrasonic sensors are versatile sensors that flexibly adapt to a wide range of industrial uses.
The following excerpt from our comprehensive and free downloadable “Technology Guide Ultrasonic Sensors” explains the basic function principles of these handy sensing generalists.